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Dibroticite species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Luperini: Diabroticina) are among the most damaging insect pests of corn (Zea mays L.) in North America, causing an estimated $1 billion economic loss annually to agriculture. Their control is presently unsatisfactory as crop rotations are undependable and soil treatments with persistent insecticides over more than 20 million ha, together with aerial sprays, are practices that are both incompatible with public concerns about environmental quality and often unnecessary. There is much interest in developing modern IPM technology for these pests and the urgency is heightened by the recent invasion of Serbia by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera, and its rapid spread throughout a major corn growing area of Central Europe. This review summarizes progress over the past 25 years in elucidating the kairomonal chemical ecology of these Diabroticites and will incorporate new findings about the development of volatile kairomone mimetics. These attractants are useful as probes for studying basic Diabroticite ecology and behavior and have significant applied potential for the development of innovative IPM technology: including monitoring infestations, establishing economic thresholds, and developing attracticide baits and behavioral disruption techniques.