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Current Trends in Microbiology   Volumes    Volume 15 
T cell responses to adenoviral vectors expressing the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein
Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi, Mikhail Novikov, Robert Ambrose, Arezki Chekaoui, Dakota Newman, Xiang Yang Zhou, Hildegund C. J. Ertl
Pages: 1 - 28
Number of pages: 28
Current Trends in Microbiology
Volume 15 

Copyright © 2021 Research Trends. All rights reserved

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines aim to protect against COVID-19 through neutralizing antibodies against the viral spike protein. Mutations within the spike’s receptor-binding domain may eventually reduce vaccine efficacy, necessitating periodic updates. Vaccine-induced immunity could be broadened by adding T cell-inducing antigens such as SARS-CoV-2’s nucleoprotein (N). Here we describe two replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC) vectors from different serotypes expressing SARS-CoV-2 N either in its wild-type form or fused into herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (gD), an inhibitor of an early T cell checkpoint. The vaccines induce potent and sustained CD8+ T cell responses that are broadened upon inclusion of gD. Depending on the vaccine regimen booster immunizations increase magnitude and breadth of T cell responses. Epitopes that are recognized by the vaccine-induced T cells are highly conserved among global SARS-CoV-2 isolates indicating that addition of N to COVID-19 vaccines may lessen the risk of loss of vaccine-induced protection due to variants.
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