Home | My Profile | Contact Us
Research Trends Products  |   order gateway  |   author gateway  |   editor gateway  
Register | Forgot Password

Author Resources
 Author Gateway
 Article submission guidelines

Editor Resources
 Editor/Referee Gateway

 Regional Subscription Agents/Distributors
Current Topics in Toxicology   Volumes    Volume 2 
Reduction of teratogen induced birth defects in mice: role of maternal immune stimulation
Terry C. Hrubec, M. Renee Prater, K. Punareewattana, Steven D. Holladay
Pages: 33 - 40
Number of pages: 8
Current Topics in Toxicology
Volume 2 

Copyright © 2005 Research Trends. All rights reserved

Non-specific stimulation of the maternal immune system during the peri-conception period has broad spectrum efficacy for reducing teratogen-induced birth defects in mice. Morphological lesions that were reduced or blocked in mice included cleft palate and associated craniofacial defects, digit and limb defects, tail malformations and neural tube defects (NTD; both exencephaly and rachyschisis). Teratogenic stimuli used to induce morphologic defects included diverse chemical agents, hyperthermia, x-rays, or diabetes mellitus. Equally diverse procedures of immune stimulation proved effective for defect reduction, including footpad injection with complete Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA), intraperitoneal injection with inert particles or attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), intrauterine injection with allogenic or xenogenic lymphocytes or intravascular, intrauterine or IP injection with immunomodulatory cytokines. Limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which such immune stimulation reduces fetal dysmorphogenesis. The collective literature suggests the possibility that immunoregulatory cytokines of maternal origin may be effector molecules in this phenomenon.
Buy this Article


Buy this article
Buy this volume
Subscribe to this title
Shopping Cart

Quick Links
Search Products
Browse in Alphabetical Order : Journals
Browse by Subject Classification : Journals

Ordering Information Ordering Information
Downloadable forms Downloadable Forms