The synthesis of carbon nanofiber electrodes from water chestnut through chemical activation with KOH and physical activation with CO2 gas was achieved. The concentration of the KOH activator used in this research was 0.5 M. Physical activation using CO2 gas was performed at a temperature of 900 °C with different activation times of 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 hours. The morphology of a cross section of a carbon electrode showed the appearance of carbon nanofiber particles with an average diameter of 53 nm and an average fiber length of 6234 nm. The meso and micropore structure in the wall of the nanofiber is very supportive of the ion transport process into the microspores to form a double layer that enhanced the capacitive properties of the electrode. The sample shows an amorphous structure. The optimum specific surface area and specific capacitance of the carbon nanofiber were as high as 547 m2 g-1 and 130 F g-1, respectively, at an activation time of 2.5 hours.
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