A high mortality rate of pines has been caused in Japan, Korea, and China by a combination of the cerambycid beetle Monochamus alternatus and the pathogenic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. This beetle is the vector of the pine-parasitic nematode. Paraquat (herbicide)-induced lightwood in pine xylem has afforded a key to understanding chemical ecology of the beetle. The bioassay-guided isolation and identification of attractants, oviposition stimulants, and a masking substance from pine was reviewed, with emphasis on innovation of classic separation methods for natural products, especially polar compounds.
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