The pulmonary vein myocardium is receiving attention as the source of ectopic electrical activity underlying atrial fibrillation. Electrophysiological and pharmacological analysis in various experimental animal species have revealed the characteristics of the pulmonary vein myocardium such as lower repolarizing capacity and presence of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Pulmonary vein automaticity is affected by various neurohumoral substances and pharmacological agents. Studies on the mechanisms and regulation of pulmonary vein automaticity would lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for atrial fibrillation.
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