Zinc oxide nanoparticles have widespread applications in medicine and in several industries because of its specific physical and chemical properties. Nanoparticles have a greater toxicity in comparison to the large-sized materials because they are highly reactive causing oxidative stress in humans. The current study aims to evaluate the toxic effect of sub-chronic use of zinc oxide nanoparticles on lymphatic system of rats by the assessment of some hematological indices (total and differential white blood cell, red blood cell and platelet counts) and histopathological changes concerning the spleen, thymus gland, and lymph nodes. Sixty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each group comprising twenty rats. The first control group received water via an oral gastric tube while the second and the third group received 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of zinc oxide nanoparticles, respectively via intraperitoneal injections for three months. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles caused a decrease in the rats’ body, thymus and spleen weight, reduction in the total blood cell count, disturbance in the differential white blood cell count, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in thymus, spleen and lymph nodes. Thus, sub-chronic use of zinc oxide nanoparticles affects lymphatic system and some hematological indices depending on their dose.
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